Street names in cities and villages in Indonesia
mostly use the names of Indonesian heroes or characters in the
past, like the heroes before or after the independence and the
national or revolutionary ones. Their names are also taken for the
names of airports in Indonesia. The followings are names of some
A. Pre-Independence Heroes
The heroes who struggled against the colonials
before the independence
(before 17 August 1945)
Teuku Umar, from Aceh (1873-1904)
In the end of 19th century, the Dutch took over
its colonies from the British. Then the Dutch tried to put Aceh
under its rule and the Sumatras people, under the leadership of
some leaders (among them, General Polim, Teuku Cik Di Tiro, Teuku
Ibrahim, Cut Nya Dhien, and Teuku Umar) started to struggle
against the Dutch. Teuku Umar died in 1899 in a war in Meulaboh.
In 1878 the Dutch attacked Tapanuli. This attack
was failed by the people of Tapanuli. In 1907 the Dutch troop
under the leadership of Captain Cristoffel attack the fort of
Sisingamangaraja XII in Pak-Pak, Tapanuli. Sisingamangaraja died
in the war. His body was buried in Tarutung but later moved to
Tuanku Imam Bonjol, Paderi War hero (1821-1837)
His real name was Peto Syarif. He had another
name: Mohammad Shahab. The name Bonjol was taken from the name of
an area in West Sumatra. The struggle of the Sumatra`s against the
Dutch started from the conflict between two major groups: the
customary and the religious groups. The religious group was called
"Paderi" group. The customary group asked for the
Dutch's help and enabled them to occupy some areas in West
Sumatra, which led to the Paderi War - the war between the Paderi
group under the leadership of Tuanku Imam Bonjol and the Dutch.
The customary group finally realized that they had been used by
the Dutch. In 1833 the two groups were united to struggle against
the Dutch. On 25 October 1837 Tuanku Imam Bonjol was caught and
arrested by the Dutch. Imam Bonjol died on 6 November 1864 in
Manado and buried in Pineleng village.
Prince Diponogoro, from Central Java
The Diponogoro war was from 1825 to 1830. Prince
Diponogoro led the war which started from his disappointment after
the Dutch tried to get involved in his kingdom and people. Since
it was difficult for the Dutch to influence Prince Diponogoro,
they tried another tactics. They offered to have a discussion. The
meeting held on 28 March 1830 in Magelang was actually a trap to
catch him. He was taken to Batavia, then exiled to Manado and
finally moved to Makassar and kept in Rotterdam Fort. Prince
Diponogoro died and buried in Makassar on 8 January 1855.
Sultan Agung, from Mataram (1628-1679)
The Mataram kingdom reached its golden era under
the leadership of Sultan Agung. The arbitrary action of VOC toward
the people started a war against the Dutch in Mataram under his
Pangeran Antasari, from South Kalimantan (1859)
Banjarmasin Kingdom was a prosperous kingdom in
South kalimantan. The Dutch's coming to monopolize the trade in
Banjarmasin and interfere in their internal affairs were opposed
by the people and the royal family. They struggled under the
leadership of Prince Hidayat, who succeeded in occupying the
Dutch's posts on 28 April 1859. Prince Hidayat supported Prince
Patimura, from Saparua (1817)
During the British colonialism, Patimura joined
the army as a sergeant. In 1817 he led the people of Mollucas to
struggle against the Dutch. The war started from the arbitrary
action of the Dutch toward the people. But there was a traitor
among the Mollucas people. Patimura and friends were caught by the
Dutch, and on 16 December 1817 he was hung in front of Victoria
Fort in Ambon.
Sultan Hassanuddin, from Makasar (1633-1669)
Makassar developed fast and reached its golden era
under the reign of Sultan Hassanuddin. This had captured the VOC
who then came to the kingdom. Sultan Hassanuddin refused the
monopoly trade system applied by the VOC. Since then there was a
war against the VOC under the leadership of the sultan.
B. Post Independence Heroes (After 17 August 1945)
Raden Ajeng Kartini, who was born in Jepara on 21
April 1879, started the Indonesian women movement. She made a
social movement to defend the women's emancipation. Her book is
entitled "Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang".
Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo
The one who suggested the establishment of Budi
Utomo. Budi Utomo was established by dr. Sutomo.
The Three Friends - Dr. Douwes Dekkker, Dr. Cipto
Mangun Kusumo, and Ki Hajar Dewantara - established Indische
Party. In its action the party used "De Express"
newspaper as its medium, under the leadership of Douwes Dekker.
He established PNI (the Indonesian National Party)
in 1927, proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia,
and became the first president.
Drs. Mohammad Hatta
He established the National Education and led the
Indonesian Association in Netherland. He was also the proclamator
of the independence of the Republic of Indonesia together with Ir.
W.R. Supratman, the composer of the National Anthem,
Rd. Dewi Sartika, followed and continued Kartini's ideas.
Jendral Sudirman, the Great General of TNI (the Indonesian
National Army). He died on 29 January 1950 in Magelang
I Gusti Ngurah Rai, from Bali
Died on 20 November 1946 in Marga village near Tabanan City in
Admiral Yos Sudarso, from Salatiga
He died in the battle on Aru Sea on 15 January 1962.
C. Revolution Heroes
They died in protecting the Five Principles
(Pancasila) and the Basic Constitution (UUD 1945). They were
killed in the Communist movement on September 30,1965 when the
Indonesian Communist Party attempted to seize complete control of
the government. Among them are: (Posthumously promoted to) General
Ahmad Yani, Lieutenant General Siswondo Parman, Lieutenant General
MT Haryono, Lieutenant R. Suprapto, Major General Donald Ifak
Panjaitan, Captain Piere Tendean, etc.
Beside for street names, their names are also used for the names
of Museums and monuments all over Indonesia.