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Indonesian Street Names and Heroes

Street names in cities and villages in Indonesia mostly use the names of Indonesian heroes or characters in the past, like the heroes before or after the independence and the national or revolutionary ones. Their names are also taken for the names of airports in Indonesia. The followings are names of some Indonesian heroes:

A. Pre-Independence Heroes

The heroes who struggled against the colonials before the independence 
(before 17 August 1945)

Teuku Umar, from Aceh (1873-1904)

In the end of 19th century, the Dutch took over its colonies from the British. Then the Dutch tried to put Aceh under its rule and the Sumatras people, under the leadership of some leaders (among them, General Polim, Teuku Cik Di Tiro, Teuku Ibrahim, Cut Nya Dhien, and Teuku Umar) started to struggle against the Dutch. Teuku Umar died in 1899 in a war in Meulaboh.

Sisingamangaraja XII

In 1878 the Dutch attacked Tapanuli. This attack was failed by the people of Tapanuli. In 1907 the Dutch troop under the leadership of Captain Cristoffel attack the fort of Sisingamangaraja XII in Pak-Pak, Tapanuli. Sisingamangaraja died in the war. His body was buried in Tarutung but later moved to Balige, Tapanuli.

Tuanku Imam Bonjol, Paderi War hero (1821-1837)

His real name was Peto Syarif. He had another name: Mohammad Shahab. The name Bonjol was taken from the name of an area in West Sumatra. The struggle of the Sumatra`s against the Dutch started from the conflict between two major groups: the customary and the religious groups. The religious group was called "Paderi" group. The customary group asked for the Dutch's help and enabled them to occupy some areas in West Sumatra, which led to the Paderi War - the war between the Paderi group under the leadership of Tuanku Imam Bonjol and the Dutch. The customary group finally realized that they had been used by the Dutch. In 1833 the two groups were united to struggle against the Dutch. On 25 October 1837 Tuanku Imam Bonjol was caught and arrested by the Dutch. Imam Bonjol died on 6 November 1864 in Manado and buried in Pineleng village.

Prince Diponogoro, from Central Java

The Diponogoro war was from 1825 to 1830. Prince Diponogoro led the war which started from his disappointment after the Dutch tried to get involved in his kingdom and people. Since it was difficult for the Dutch to influence Prince Diponogoro, they tried another tactics. They offered to have a discussion. The meeting held on 28 March 1830 in Magelang was actually a trap to catch him. He was taken to Batavia, then exiled to Manado and finally moved to Makassar and kept in Rotterdam Fort. Prince Diponogoro died and buried in Makassar on 8 January 1855.

Sultan Agung, from Mataram (1628-1679)

The Mataram kingdom reached its golden era under the leadership of Sultan Agung. The arbitrary action of VOC toward the people started a war against the Dutch in Mataram under his direct leadership.

Pangeran Antasari, from South Kalimantan (1859)

Banjarmasin Kingdom was a prosperous kingdom in South kalimantan. The Dutch's coming to monopolize the trade in Banjarmasin and interfere in their internal affairs were opposed by the people and the royal family. They struggled under the leadership of Prince Hidayat, who succeeded in occupying the Dutch's posts on 28 April 1859. Prince Hidayat supported Prince Antasari.

Patimura, from Saparua (1817)

During the British colonialism, Patimura joined the army as a sergeant. In 1817 he led the people of Mollucas to struggle against the Dutch. The war started from the arbitrary action of the Dutch toward the people. But there was a traitor among the Mollucas people. Patimura and friends were caught by the Dutch, and on 16 December 1817 he was hung in front of Victoria Fort in Ambon.

Sultan Hassanuddin, from Makasar (1633-1669)

Makassar developed fast and reached its golden era under the reign of Sultan Hassanuddin. This had captured the VOC who then came to the kingdom. Sultan Hassanuddin refused the monopoly trade system applied by the VOC. Since then there was a war against the VOC under the leadership of the sultan.

B. Post Independence Heroes (After 17 August 1945)

R.A. Kartini

Raden Ajeng Kartini, who was born in Jepara on 21 April 1879, started the Indonesian women movement. She made a social movement to defend the women's emancipation. Her book is entitled "Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang".

Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo

The one who suggested the establishment of Budi Utomo. Budi Utomo was established by dr. Sutomo.

"Tiga Serangkai"

The Three Friends - Dr. Douwes Dekkker, Dr. Cipto Mangun Kusumo, and Ki Hajar Dewantara - established Indische Party. In its action the party used "De Express" newspaper as its medium, under the leadership of Douwes Dekker.

Ir. Soekarno

He established PNI (the Indonesian National Party) in 1927, proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, and became the first president.

Drs. Mohammad Hatta

He established the National Education and led the Indonesian Association in Netherland. He was also the proclamator of the independence of the Republic of Indonesia together with Ir. Soekarno.

W.R. Supratman, the composer of the National Anthem, Indonesia Raya.

Rd. Dewi Sartika, followed and continued Kartini's ideas.

Jendral Sudirman, the Great General of TNI (the Indonesian National Army). He died on 29 January 1950 in Magelang

I Gusti Ngurah Rai, from Bali
Died on 20 November 1946 in Marga village near Tabanan City in Bali.

Admiral Yos Sudarso, from Salatiga
He died in the battle on Aru Sea on 15 January 1962.

C. Revolution Heroes

They died in protecting the Five Principles (Pancasila) and the Basic Constitution (UUD 1945). They were killed in the Communist movement on September 30,1965 when the Indonesian Communist Party attempted to seize complete control of the government. Among them are: (Posthumously promoted to) General Ahmad Yani, Lieutenant General Siswondo Parman, Lieutenant General MT Haryono, Lieutenant R. Suprapto, Major General Donald Ifak Panjaitan, Captain Piere Tendean, etc. 
Beside for street names, their names are also used for the names of Museums and monuments all over Indonesia.

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